配置RAID Card H700、6i [Information on Configuring for Optimal RAID Performance] Write Back、Read Ahead

Write Policy

The Write Policy can have a very big impact on write performance. There are two modes available:
1. Write Back
2. Write Thru.

Write Back Mode
This mode provides better performance in most cases. In Write‐Back mode, the RAID controller
acknowledges write I/O requests immediately after the data loads into the controller cache. The
application can continue working without waiting for the data to be physically written to the hard
drives.
If a power loss occurs in write‐back mode, there is a risk of losing data in the RAID cache. The data
loss may be fatal and may require restoring data from a backup device. It is critical to have
protection against power failures. Using a UPS with redundant system power supplies is highly
recommended. RAID Backup Battery Unit can provide additional protection.

回寫模式
此模式在大多數情況下提供更好的性能。在回寫模式下,RAID控制器
在將數據加載到控制器高速緩存後立即確認寫入I / O請求。的應用程序可以繼續工作,而不必等待數據被物理寫入硬盤驅動器。
如果在回寫模式下發生電源丟失,則可能會丟失RAID緩存中的數據。數據丟失可能是致命的並且可能需要從備份設備恢復數據。
它是至關重要的保護電源故障。使用具有冗餘系統電源的UPS是高度的推薦的。 RAID備份電池單元可以提供額外的保護。

Write Thru Mode
This mode does not utilize the RAID cache for accelerating write I/O requests.
In most cases it will be slower than Write‐Back mode. However, Write Thru mode allows achieving
the highest sequential write bandwidth with RAID 0 or RAID 10.

寫通模式
此模式不使用RAID緩存來加速寫入I / O請求。
在大多數情況下,它將慢於回寫模式。但是,Write Thru模式允許實現使用RAID 0或RAID 10的最高順序寫入帶寬。

Disk Cache Policy
Disk Cache Policy determines whether the hard‐drive write cache is enabled or disabled. When Write
Policy is set to Write Thru mode, Disk Cache Policy can have very big impact on write performance.
When Write Policy is set to Write Back mode, impact of Disk Cache Policy is much smaller and in many
cases negligible.
When Disk Cache Policy is enabled, there is a risk of losing data in the hard drive cache if a power
failure occurs. The data loss may be fatal and may require restoring the data from a backup device.
It is critical to have protection against power failures. Using a UPS with redundant system power
supplies are highly recommended. RAID Backup Battery Unit can provide additional protection.
Note: A RAID Backup Battery Unit does not protect the hard drive cache. Impact of RAID Settings on
Performance Configuring RAID for Optimal Performance Read Ahead Policy.

磁盤高速緩存策略
磁盤高速緩存策略確定是否啟用或禁用硬盤驅動器寫高速緩存。寫時
策略設置為Write Thru模式,磁盤高速緩存策略對寫入性能有很大的影響。
當寫入策略設置為回寫模式時,磁盤高速緩存策略的影響小得多,在許多
案件可以忽略不計。
啟用磁盤高速緩存策略時,如果有電源,則可能會丟失硬盤驅動器高速緩存中的數據
故障發生。數據丟失可能是致命的,並且可能需要從備份設備恢復數據。
具有電源故障保護至關重要。使用具有冗餘系統電源的UPS
強烈推薦用品。 RAID備份電池單元可以提供額外的保護。
注意:RAID備份電池單元不保護硬盤驅動器緩存。 RAID設置的影響
性能配置RAID以獲得最佳性能預讀策略。

2

The Read Ahead Policy determines whether the RAID controller will read just a block of data that an
application has requested, or whether it will read the whole stripe from the hard‐drives. This setting can
have big impact on read performance.

預讀策略確定RAID控制器是否只讀取一個數據塊
應用程序已請求,還是將從硬盤驅動器讀取整個條帶。此設置可以
對讀性能有很大的影響。

No Read Ahead (Normal)
The RAID controller will read only the block of data that the application has requested. This mode is
preferred when read requests are primarily random. Also this mode is recommended when measuring
sequential read throughput with I/O meter* under Windows.

無預讀(正常)
RAID控制器將只讀取應用程序請求的數據塊。這種模式是當讀請求主要是隨機的時,首選。
測量時也推薦使用此模式在Windows下使用I / O表*的順序讀取吞吐量。

Always Read Ahead
The RAID controller will read the whole stripe containing the requested data block and will keep it in
cache. Each read operation will consume more hard drive resources, but if the read requests are
primarily sequential it can substantially reduce the amount of read requests to the hard drives and can
substantially increase performance.
Note: This setting will only make difference if the typical read request size is smaller than
the stripe width.

RAID控制器將讀取包含所請求數據塊的整個條帶,並將其保留緩存。
每個讀操作將消耗更多的硬盤驅動器資源,但如果讀請求是主要是順序的,它可以基本上減少對硬盤驅動器的讀取請求的數量大大提高性能。
注意:如果典型的讀取請求大小小於此設置,則此設置將有所不同條帶寬度。

Adaptive Read Ahead
The RAID controller automatically adjusts the read policy based on the current pattern of read requests.
It combines the benefits of No Read Ahead and Always Read Ahead modes. This mode is recommended
if the workload has mixed sequential and random patterns, or if the pattern is unknown.

自適應預讀
RAID控制器根據讀取請求的當前模式自動調整讀取策略。
它結合了“不預讀”和“總是預讀”模式的優勢。建議使用此模式如果工作負載具有混合的順序和隨機模式,或者模式未知。

I/O Policy
The I/O Policy determines whether the RAID controller will keep data in the cache, which can reduce the
access time if subsequent read requests are made to the same data blocks.

I / O策略
I / O策略確定RAID控制器是否將在緩存中保留數據,這可以減少如果對相同的數據塊進行後續讀請求,則訪問時間。

Direct I/O
Direct IO mode is recommended in most cases. Most file systems and many applications have their own
cache and do not require caching data at the RAID controller level.

直接I / O
在大多數情況下建議使用直接IO模式。大多數文件系統和許多應用程序都有自己的緩存,並且不需要在RAID控制器級別緩存數據。

Cached I/O
In Cached I/O mode the controller caches both read and write requests.
If there are subsequent read requests to the same data blocks, they are read from the RAID cache
instead of the hard drives. This mode may be required if the application or file system does not
cache read requests.

緩存I / O
在緩存I / O模式下,控制器緩存讀取和寫入請求。
如果存在對相同數據塊的後續讀取請求,則從RAID高速緩存中讀取它們而不是硬盤驅動器。
如果應用程序或文件系統不需要此模式高速緩存讀取請求。


3

Strip Size
Strip size determines how data is distributed across hard drives. It also determines how many drives are
accessed to service a single I/O request. Typically, sequential workloads benefit from using large strip
sizes (512 KB or 1MB). With random types of access, the strip size depends on the typical access block
size and on data alignment.
For example,
If a database is using 16 KB records with 16 KB alignment, the optimal strip size can be 16KB. For file‐ or
web‐server a large (512 KB or 1 MB) strip size can be optimal.
Software vendor documentation often provides recommendations on how to select RAID strip sizes.
Note: Matching the strip size to the file system cluster size does not usually provide any
benefit. Data block or file sizes used by the application are usually more important. However, setting the
strip size smaller than the cluster size is not recommended.


條帶大小確定數據如何分佈在硬盤驅動器上。它還確定有多少驅動器訪問以服務單個I / O請求。
通常,順序工作負載受益於使用大帶大小(512 KB或1MB)。
對於隨機類型的訪問,帶大小取決於典型的訪問塊尺寸和數據對齊。
例如,
如果數據庫使用16 KB對齊的16 KB記錄,則最佳條帶大小可以為16KB。
對於文件或web服務器大(512 KB或1 MB)條帶大小可以是最佳的。
軟件供應商文檔通常提供有關如何選擇RAID條帶大小的建議。
注意:將條帶大小與文件系統集群大小相匹配通常不會提供任何值效益。
應用程序使用的數據塊或文件大小通常更重要。但是,設置不推薦使用小於簇大小的條帶大小。

Other Performance Factors
When measuring performance of a RAID subsystem, it is important to remove factors that can limit the
performance or cause variations in the performance.

Backup Battery Status
When doing write performance measurements in Write Back mode, it is important to check the status of
the battery and the Current Write Policy. When the battery is not fully charged or is in the process of
relearning, Write Policy will be automatically switched to Write Thru. This will have big impact on write
performance.
You can disable the Write Thru for a failed or missing battery option to make sure that the Write Back
mode is used regardless of the current battery status. In a production environment disabling this option
may cause data loss if power failure occurs when the battery does not have sufficient level of charge.

其他性能要素
當測量RAID子系統的性能時,重要的是刪除可以限制的因素
性能或導致性能的變化。

備份電池狀態
在回寫模式下進行寫性能測量時,重要的是檢查狀態
電池和當前寫入策略。當電池未充滿電或正在過程中
重新學習,寫策略將自動切換到寫通。這將對寫入有很大影響
性能。
您可以禁用失敗或丟失電池選項的Write Thru,以確保回寫
模式,而不考慮當前電池狀態。在生產環境中禁用此選項
如果電池沒有足夠的電量,可能會導致數據丟失。

Configure Broadcom (LSI) Card for SSD RAID
According to Broadcom (LSI), to get the best performance with SSDs, you should be using the following settings:
Read Cache: DISABLED
Write Cache: WriteThrough
IO: DIRECT

為SSD RAID配置Broadcom(LSI)卡
根據Broadcom(LSI),要獲得SSD的最佳性能,您應該使用以下設置:
讀取緩存:DISABLED
寫高速緩存:WriteThrough
IO:DIRECT

DD + Mount + conert VMDK

mount:

mount //192.168.0.1/rex /media/rex/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword

mount -t cifs //192.168.0.1/rex /media/rex -o username=rex,password=rex,codepage=cp950,iocharset=utf8 

DD:

dd if=/dev/sda | gzip > /mount/rex/rex.img.gz

or

gzip -dc /mount/rex/rex.img.gz | dd of=/dev/sda

Qemu-img:

https://docs.openstack.org/image-guide/convert-images.html

F:\qemu>qemu-img.exe convert /rex.img/rex.img -O vmdk rex.vmdk

Upload Esxi

Debian 9 Screen Share 螢幕分享 VNC “error in tightvnc viewer no security types supported.”

使用Debian內建的螢幕分享,正常都可以在手機與Linux機器上連線,

唯獨在Windows使用 Tightvnc 時,會顯示不支援此安全類型,

必須關閉安全設定才行

apt-get install dconf-editor

安裝後打開 系統工具–dconf編輯器,

org/gnome/desktop/remote-access/require-encryption

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將他關閉改成 False

儲存後即可連線了

Exchange 2016 Event 106 錯誤訊息修復

運作中的Exchange 2016一直跑出106的錯誤,

找很久才找到解決辦法:

Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.Exchange.Management.PowerShell.Setup
$perfcounters = Get-ChildItem “$env:ExchangeInstallPath\Setup\Perf\” *.xml | Where-Object {!($_.psiscontainer)}
$perfcount = $perfcounters.Count

foreach ($perfcounter in $perfcounters) {
New-PerfCounters -DefinitionFileName $perfcounter.FullName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Write-Progress -Activity “Reloading $perfcount Exchange Performance Counters” -PercentComplete (($i++ / $perfcount) * 100)}

跑完後106錯誤就不會再出現了,Event少很多

出處:連結位置

Mail Server : Exchange 2016 郵件伺服器 安裝設定 For Windows Server 2012

公司一直都是使用 Linux Sendmail,使用上蠻多問題產生的,加上業務、總經理、董事長都用手機在收,

常常出問題,一氣之下申請採購 Exchange2016

我自己OS是使用 Windows Server 2012來安裝Exchange 2016,

安裝好後先行加入網域,重開機登入後開始安裝的步驟,

  • 開啟PowerShell 執行命令 “Install-WindowsFeature RSAT-ADDS”
    我是已經有AD了,所以只要執行Install-WindowsFeature RSAT-ADDS
    沒有AD的需要執行 Install-WindowsFeature AD-Domain-Services後,再執行上面指令
  • 開啟PowerShell 安裝郵件伺服器角色Install-WindowsFeature AS-HTTP-Activation, Desktop-Experience, NET-Framework-45-Features, RPC-over-HTTP-proxy, RSAT-Clustering, RSAT-Clustering-CmdInterface, RSAT-Clustering-Mgmt, RSAT-Clustering-PowerShell, Web-Mgmt-Console, WAS-Process-Model, Web-Asp-Net45, Web-Basic-Auth, Web-Client-Auth, Web-Digest-Auth, Web-Dir-Browsing, Web-Dyn-Compression, Web-Http-Errors, Web-Http-Logging, Web-Http-Redirect, Web-Http-Tracing, Web-ISAPI-Ext, Web-ISAPI-Filter, Web-Lgcy-Mgmt-Console, Web-Metabase, Web-Mgmt-Console, Web-Mgmt-Service, Web-Net-Ext45, Web-Request-Monitor, Web-Server, Web-Stat-Compression, Web-Static-Content, Web-Windows-Auth, Web-WMI, Windows-Identity-Foundation
  • 安裝 Edge 傳輸伺服器角色 Install-WindowsFeature ADLDS

以上指令完成後就可以執行 Exchange 2016 安裝步驟了

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幾乎都是下一步即可,到了條件分析時,會顯示錯誤與警告,通常處理錯誤,將錯誤一步一步解除即可,

警告的部分,如不是很重大可略過不理他

像我的錯誤是AD樹系等級,升級後並安裝UCMA5.0,即可下一步安裝Exchange2016,(KB2822241、KB2884597、KB2894875)也記得安裝,

安裝進度需要一段時間,

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安裝完後就可以登入ECP了

一開始需要新增傳送連接器,(智慧主機)

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因 Exchange 開放 Push Mail 手機使用,故業務與大頭們信箱容量勢必會很大,所以我將資料庫移動到E槽

移動資料庫指令: 開啟 Exchange Management Shell 輸入 Move-DatabasePath -Identity MyDatabase01 -EdbFilePath C:\NewFolder\MyDatabase01.edb